How to Improve Your Product Design with Empathy Maps

Empathy is a valuable skill to have, no matter what profession you are in. It’s the ability to emotionally understand and imagine yourself in someone else’s place.

When designing and building products, empathetic behaviour is almost a requirement. It’s how you start building human-centred products. Product managers, designers and developers need to be able to put themselves in the users’ shoes. There are many methods to do this, and one popular technique is called empathy mapping.

What is empathy mapping?

You’ll create empathy maps when:

  • Starting the product design process, after conducting user research but before outlining the product plan and requirements.
  • Creating user personas or exploring user personas.
  • Designing user interview, survey, and feedback questions.

Why create an empathy map?

1. Get everyone on the same page

2. Remove biases and judgements

3. Build stronger personas

4. Improve your user research process

How create an empathy map?

1. Prepare your data

Gather all previous user interviews, research, and surveys for this exercise. They should be easy to understand for anyone. You can summarise and share the main points prior to the group session. You can even invite a user to the empathy mapping exercise.

2. Draw the empathy map

Empathy map
Empathy map

Using a whiteboard, draw the quadrants of the empathy map. You can use templates on Mural if you’re running a remote session.

These are the main elements of an empathy map:

  • Title: This is the situation that your user is facing.
  • Thinks: This quadrant is to capture the thoughts of your user.
  • Feels: This quadrant is to capture their emotional state such as doubts, excitement, etc.
  • Does: This quadrant is to capture the user’s behaviours. You can also note down the reaction to what they see and hear.
  • Says: This quadrant is to capture what they might say in this situation. You can also note down the response to what they see and hear.
  • (Optional) Pains: You may also capture their pain points.
  • (Optional) Gains: You may also include their goals and motivation.

3. Write your observations

Empathy map example
Empathy map example

Get everyone to think and write their observations on sticky notes and stick them in a quadrant. This is also easily done if you’re doing a remote session, using tools like Miro and Mural. Don’t worry if you place it in the wrong section. We can sort that out later. This stage is about getting as many relevant opinions as possible.

You’d want to tune up your empathy antennae for this, and really imagine yourself as the user. Remember, you’re not answering what you would think, feel, say and do. You are answering how the user may think, feel say and do, given all the research and assumption you have in hand. If your persona is a 15-year-old kid, then you need to imagine being a teenager again.

Here are a few examples of what you may put in each section. In this imaginary situation, the user is a man in his 40s, who wants to learn how to play a guitar and is choosing the right guitar to buy on an ecommerce site.


  • “Is this model XYZ cheaper on another site?”
  • “I wonder what the return policy is?”


  • Confused — “There are cheaper models but I don’t understand the differences.”
  • Excited — “I’m finally learning the guitar. I have always wanted to since my 20s.”


  • Checks promotion page for any good deals.
  • Bookmark product pages to consult with a friend later.


  • “Which guitar is best for a beginner?”
  • “Do I need any guitar accessories?”


  • Long checkout process with limited payment options.
  • Hates overspending and doesn’t want to miss a sale


  • A hassle-free comparison, buying and shipping process.
  • A reliable and quality guitar that will last at least 5 years.

4. Discuss further

Family first // Principal @relabstudios // Customer-obsessed digital design agency // Design sprint advocate // Melbourne // Say hello @alhermanto

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